armeniaArmenia is a Eurasian country located in the South Caucasus region. Its population is about three million, and the name of its capital is Yerevan. Although situated between the Black and Caspian Seas, Armenia is a landlocked country. It is administratively divided into 10 provinces (marz). Each province comprises one or more settlements, which are classified as either towns or villages. The total number of rural and urban communities is about 915. Armenia inherited centralized planning and state-owned large farms from the Soviet-era, but since gaining independence in 1991, it has undertaken major reforms towards privatization of land and market liberalization, earning appreciation and receiving assistance from international development institutions. 

Context

Context

The climate of Armenia is continental, with dry summers but moderate temperatures. As the country is mountainous, with an average altitude of 1,800 meters above sea level, it has relatively long autumns and snow-filled winters. According to an estimate, more than 88 percent of farmers cultivate farms of less than two-hectare size although the average size could differ from region to region. Crops include wheat, barley, oats, beans, tobacco, potato, cabbage, tomato, onion, cotton, flax, hemp, hook and alfalfa.  Fruits grown are grapes, apricot, apples, peach, plum, pear, walnut and some others. Lately, many farmers have been following organic farming. Viticulture is of great importance for Armenia because brandy and wine prepared from its special quality grape varieties are in great demand internationally. Livestock-raising is popular in all villages and covers cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses. Water sources for irrigation of crops include rivers, lakes and underground water. Annual rainfall varies from 250 mm in arid regions to 1,000 mm in the highlands.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

17,106

60.06

430,200

15.10

0.14

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

29.17

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

20.47

116.28

19.23

19.75

2012

2012

2012

2012

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

3720

2012

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

99.55

99.82

99.69

100.13

102.29

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

103.56

32

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)

2,969,081

104.07

1,064,012

35.83

N.A.

1,384,754

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

2012

2011

2012

2012

2011

Sources: The World Bank

History

History of extension and the enabling environment

Armenia had no conventional agricultural extension or advisory services while under the Soviet Bloc. Large state-owned collective farms, created by abolishing the private ownership, were operated by teams of agronomists and other employees for the sole purpose of providing the produce to the Soviet markets in line with the targets set through a centralized planning process. After gaining independence in 1991, Armenia gradually dismantled collective farms and the land was distributed among individuals. The new farm owners obviously needed technical advice for operating their farms profitably, and a huge vacuum was felt in the absence of a formal extension service. The United States was the first country to immediately fill this gap, and as briefly described below, the USA’s assistance was key in building the agricultural extension system of Armenia over a period of 13 years.

Just one year after the independence, Armenia’s Ministry of Agriculture signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Starting 1992, the USDA and USAID (United States Agency for International Development) provided financial and technical assistance to Armenia in the development of an agricultural extension system. Several US land-grant universities notably Michigan State University, University of California at Davis, and Utah State University fielded technical experts to Armenia. The following are milestones of the assistance that steadily developed the extension system:

  • Farmer-to-Farmer Program initiated in Armenia in 1992.
  • The foundation of an extension system laid in 1993.
  • The Armenian/American Extension Project implemented from 1993 to1995.
  • The Marketing Assistance Project (MAP) implemented from 1996 to2000.
  • The MAP transformed into a need-driven program during the period 2000 to 2005.
  • Agricultural Extension Department established within the Armenian Agricultural Academy (now called Armenian State Agrarian University), jointly by the World Bank and USDA.
  • Agricultural Training Center established as an academic department within the Armenian Agricultural Academy.
  • Regional Agricultural Support Centers established in each marz of the country.
  • Research unit added to the Agricultural Extension Department that will later lead to the creation of the Applied Research and Agribusiness Foundation.
  • Agricultural Support Republic Center created in 2010 that would provide communication support to agricultural extension through printed materials and television programs, develop training programs, introduce improved technologies, and provide marketing services through its website AgroWeb.
  • Farmers’ organizations formed under the Federation of Agricultural Association
  • The management of certain programs (like credit clubs, 4-H Youth Program, goat breeding program), previously operated by the MAP, taken over by the Agribusiness and Rural Development Center, a national NGO, with the objective of sustaining the gains of the MAP.

One crucial factor in the history of extension services in Armenia was the uncertainty of funding. It had been rather difficult for the government to provide adequate funding to the evolving extension system on sustained basis. That is why the extension services were developed through donor-funded projects of the USAID/USDA and World Bank. Fearful of the risk of collapsing the new extension system, the management of the Agricultural Marketing Assistance convinced the government to establish an Agricultural Extension Department at the Romanian State Agrarian University along with a position of Vice-Rector for Extension, when the project was about to end. Under this agreed arrangement, the usual funding for the university kept coming from the Ministry of Education while that for the Agricultural Extension Department started coming from the Ministry of Agriculture on sustained basis. The integration of the Agricultural Extension Department of a major national university into the new public extension system not only guaranteed continued funding for the country’s extension programs by the Ministry of Agriculture (without conflicting with the Ministry of Education budget meant for the university), but it also ensured the newly created extension system’s sustainability. It was an indeed great accomplishment on the part of all parties concerned, i.e. the Marketing Assistance Project, Romanian State Agrarian University, Ministry of Agriculture, and Ministry of Education.    

The Ministry of Agriculture developed the “Concept of Priority Directions of Development of the Agrarian Science in the Republic of Armenia (2009-2013)”. The extent of its translation into action is not yet known. In essence, the public extension system in Armenia comprises three national level players, namely Agricultural Support Republic Center of the Ministry of Agriculture, Armenian State Agrarian University, and Agricultural Research Centers, and a network of Regional Agricultural Support Centers.

Besides the United States, some other donors that have provided financial and technical assistance to the agriculture sector of Armenia, include: World Bank (Rural Enterprise and Small-Scale Commercial Agriculture Development (RESCAD); Armenia Pilot Agricultural Census Implementation Support; Irrigation System Enhancement Project; Community Agricultural Resource Management and Competitiveness Project), Asian Development Bank (ADB-Women’s Entrepreneurship Support Sector Development Program), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO–Technical and Institutional Support to Veterinary Services in Armenia; Development of Open Air Food Retail Markets in Armenia; Support for Pesticide Quality Control and Residue Monitoring in Armenia; Virtual Extension, Research and Communication Network- VERCON), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD–Agricultural Services Project; Irrigation Rehabilitation Project; North-West Agricultural Services Project). Germany and Japan have also provided assistance.

Extension Providers

Major institutions providing extension/advisory services

Public Institutions

Ministry of Agriculture

The agricultural extension system in Armenia is by and large public, and the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for its operation. The organizational structure of the Ministry shows a Science, Education and Consulting Department. The following two organs of the Ministry are managing extension services:

Agricultural Support Republic Center, CJSC
The Agricultural Support Republic Center (ASRC) is a national level organization, established by the government in 2002. The mandate of the ASRC is to facilitate and support capacity building for researcher-advisor-farmer linkages by providing information and advice on the latest research and technology achievements. ASRC closely works with the provincial/regional (marz) Agricultural Support Centers, local government bodies, research centers, agricultural enterprises, and certain international agencies. Based on a survey of research priority needs conducted in 2010, the ASRC, working in collaboration with the Agricultural Support Centers and researchers, had completed over 950 projects. Results of the survey were conveyed to the farmers through fact sheets, newspapers, magazines, and television. The ASRC maintains a database on researchers and technology assessment, and has been developing VERCON (Virtual Extension, Research, and Communication Network) with the assistance of FAO to establish links between research and extension institutions.

Agricultural Support Centers
The Agricultural Support Centers (ASCs) are located in all 10 marzs, offering consultancy services to farmers. According to a 2010 report, 145 Village Agents are working at ASCs. They provide consultancy services to 916 communities of all the marzs. Priority topics are determined by needs assessment surveys conducted with involvement of farmers. The staff of agricultural research institutes and the Armenian State Agrarian University is actively involved in rendering advisory services. The number of diverse advisory services offered by them during 2007 included 25,650 consultations and 2,361 marketing interventions. In addition, 679 pieces of different extension materials were published.

Armenian State Agrarian University
The Armenian State Agrarian University (ASAU), also known as Armenian National Agrarian University, is an important institution in the agricultural system of Armenia. The ASAU was originally the Armenian Agricultural Academy, founded in 1994 through merger of the Armenian Agricultural Institute and the Zoo-Veterinary Institute. It not only prepares graduates in as many as 36 different agricultural disciplines to fulfill human resources needs in the agriculture sector, but also participates in policy formulation, capacity building and reform activities of agricultural institutions including agricultural extension, consulting and advisory services.  The university has excellent physical facilities, and maintains two experimental/demonstration farms in Kotayq and Armavir marzs. The university collaborates with bi-lateral and multi-lateral donor agencies and with leading European universities in various academic and development activities.

The Agribusiness Teaching Center (ATC) is one of several academic departments of the university. It was established in 2002, with the joint efforts of the Armenian State Agrarian University, USDA and the Texas A&M University. The ATC offers a diploma program in agribusiness and marketing, as well as Master’s and Doctoral Degree programs. There is an internship and an outreach program. Also, some visiting professors from the Texas A&M University also teach at ATC under partnership between the two academic institutions.

Agricultural Research Centers
Armenia has a significant number of regional Agricultural Research Centers (ARCs), which were established within the framework of the World Bank-financed Agricultural Reform Support Project, and are located in all of its marzs, covering different research areas. A few examples are: Research Center for Agriculture and Plant Protection, Ejmiatsin; Research Center for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Nor Geghi, Kotaiq Region; Research Center for Grape, Fruit Growing and Wine-making, Merdzavan, Armavir Region; Research Center for Vegetables and Technical Crops, Darakert, Masis Region; Research Center for Soil Science, Agro Chemistry and Melioration, Yerevan; and the Research Station for Bee Keeping, Arinj, Yerevan.

It has been mentioned in a report that many of these research institutes have extension units. However, there is no evidence of the functions of such units if they exist at all. Apart from this issue, all research centers collaborate with the Ministry of Agriculture extension centers in the field as well as with the extension activities of the Armenian State Agrarian University.  The contribution of the research centers to extension is assumed to be the provision of technical subject-matter materials, backstopping and program planning along with the extension staff.

Non-Public Institutions

Private sector

Although agricultural extension in Armenia is mostly public yet the words JSC (joint-stock company) attached to certain institutions’ names give the impression that the private sector is engaged in extension work as business for profit. This is because many NGOs as well as private companies, are owned and empowered by the government, and many times funded by international donors, not only in Armenia but most ex-Soviet Bloc countries. It is, however, not to conclude that there is no real private sector in Armenia, because many companies do exist that deal in agro-processing and other businesses.  A few examples of various types of private firms are as follows:

VISTAA
VISTAA claims to be an Armenian private extension advisory organization, but it is more like a hybrid of a national NGO and a consulting firm engaged in volunteer as well as contract-based service for the farmers.  This organization is looking for opportunities to provide specific fee-based technical services (such as feasibility studies, community-based training, designing software applications, preparation of business plans, and program monitoring) to donors and donor-funded projects in Armenia.

VISTAA was created in 1996 to work on the same lines as VOCA (Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance), an international NGO, which was working on a USAID-funded project in Armenia soon after its independence. The only difference being that unlike VOCA’s expatriate staff, the VISTAA chose to have only Armenian staff. Presently, VISTAA maintains a database of more than 160 advisers available at short notice to serve clients in any part of Armenia. These advisors are both experienced and are old crop and livestock specialists from the Soviet-era.  The young graduates in subjects like business administration and computer science. VISTAA’s clients include farmers, consulting firms and NGOs, both from Armenia and overseas, and bilateral and multilateral donors.  According to a 2003 report, VISTAA was serving about 40 individual farmer clients per year, and its activities included on average 15 workshops and eight business development plans. VISTAA works in close collaboration with the government extension staff.  

Eco-Globe LLC
Eco-Globe is a full-fledged organic agriculture certification organization in Armenia. It has been accredited by DAP for EU market and by USDA National Organic Program, and provides a range of services such as organic certification, independent on-site inspections, development of standards training of inspectors, and other certification bodies from other countries.

Shen’s Organic Agricultural Extension Service
Shen is a pioneer in introducing organic agricultural practices in Armenia aiming at the creation of a new sustainable and environmentally friendly income source for Armenian rural households. He disseminated information on organic agriculture to farmers’ groups and individual farmers from 2000 to 2012 with financial support of HEKS-EPER (Switzerland) and the Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC). Others donors like Chene-France, EED (Germany), ICCO (Netherlands), UNDP GE, and Regional Council of Ile –de-France also co-funded the project.  

Shen started his Organic Agricultural Extension Service in 2005. So far, it has provided 1,300 small holders with free-of-charge training and consultancy services in organic agriculture. The activities include site visits, seminars, consultations on solving operational problems, and methods for using approved bio-preparations, plant infusions, organic fertilizers application, etc. The Service has also developed an internal control system that makes the certification service accessible for especially smallholders, which has led to the establishment of two groups of farmers willing to share the certification fee.

Agro-business companies
There are many well-established, successful agro-business companies in Armenia. They process agricultural produce and manufacture a variety of products for sale in the domestic and overseas markets. A few examples of such companies are given below, but none of them shows any involvement in extension and advisory work for the producers:

  • Yerevan Brewery: (produces beer of different shades; since 2000, also started producing fruit juices, jams, etc.).
  • EuroTerm CJSC: (produces natural juices and sterilized milk in collaboration with a Swedish company).
  • Arpa Alco LLC: (produces grape wines and fruit wines).
  • Bari Samaratsi LLC: (meat processing company; produces over 70 meat products).
  • Dustr Marianna LLC: (dairy processing company).
  • Alishan LLC: (fruit and vegetable processing).
  • Agrospasarkum CJSC: (specializes in cattle breeding, production of dairy products, construction of rural cottages, among others).
  • Dustr Melania LLC: (specializes in cheese production from high quality milk).

Non-governmental organizations

There are many active NGOs in Armenia, and a significant number of them are involved in agriculture, rural development, environment, and capacity building activities. As many NGOs serve rural population, it is assumed that they are also engaged, directly or indirectly, in providing extension and advisory services free of cost to farmers. Some of the NGOs were created in the aftermath of major donor-funded projects like the well known USDA/USAID Marketing Assistance Project (MAP), which had 13-year life and made solid contributions towards establishing extension institutions in Armenia. As the number of relevant NGOs is quite large, only a few examples are given below. A database on NGOs in Armenia may be seen at http://www.ngo.am/eng/

Center for Agribusiness and Rural Development Foundation (CARD)
As the Marketing Assistance Project in Rumania phased out, the CARD was created in 2005 by the Texas A&M University to continue key institution building work originally started by the project. The mission of CARD is to assist farmers and agribusinesses in the production and marketing of food and related products to increase incomes and create jobs leading to sustainable livelihoods for rural populations. The NGO claims to work from the farm gate to the marketplace with farmer groups, rural agribusinesses, food processors, exporters, and retailers. CARD comprises program departments of agribusiness and marketing, rural development, and special projects. It has been working on several projects in collaboration with the USDA, Louisiana State University, and U.S. Farm Credit Administration.

International Center for Agribusiness Research and Education (ICARE)
Like CARD NGO, ICARE was also created by the Texas A&M University in 2005. Main objective of creating ICARE was to administer the operations of the Agribusiness Teaching Center (ATC), the Career Development and Counseling Center, the Research and Outreach Development Center, and the Center of Excellence in Teaching and Learning, all in collaboration with the Armenian State Agrarian University.

Eco-Globe  Environmental NGO
The Eco-Globe is located in Yerevan. Its mission is to facilitate the implementation of international development agreements in Armenia, to boost up the development of organic agriculture, and to advocate consumers’ ecological rights. This NGO is also involved in capacity building and training.

Green Lane
Created in 2004, Green Lane is dedicated to Armenia’s organic foods and agricultural development. This NGO works with agricultural cooperatives and farmers’ groups. Its vision is supporting farmer cooperation and development of commercial farming in the country.

Foundation of Applied Research and Agribusiness
This NGO covers both agriculture and education sectors. Its mission is to contribute to agricultural development, improvement of social conditions in rural communities, foster agribusiness development, and to promote the upgrading of skills of specialists and students of agriculture. Examples of projects operated by this NGO are pre-production and marketing of vegetable crops, integrated measures against diseases and pests of crops, and research on deep-laid water sources.

Farmers-based associations, cooperatives and societies

Farmers-based associations and agricultural cooperatives in Armenia are considered as basically the same institutions. Cooperatives were established in 1993 when farmers were trying to increase their bargaining power in the purchase of inputs and marketing of produce. There was no law on cooperatives till 2008, and it is not sure whether one has been passed by now. Similarly, farmers started organizing themselves into associations as early as 1994, following which Armenian Farmer Association, Armenian Agricultural Union, National Union of Farmers, Association of Potato Producers, and several others, were formed. However, most of them performed poorly for various reasons and were liquidated. However, there are still many active farmers’ associations in the country. Their specific activities regarding extension are not known as they mostly depend on the public extension system, but they do play an important supportive role in enhancing member farmers’ knowledge and skills, and facilitating the marketing of produce and agro-processing. Some of the associations and cooperatives are localized or built around single commodity of members’ mutual interest and benefit. A few examples are given below.

Federation of Agricultural Associations
The Federation of Agricultural Associations (FAA) was established in 2002. FAA provides support to its member farmers in services such as market research, input procurement, book-keeping, accounting, farm management, and advocacy related to tax issues. It promotes coordination among the members in the interest of efficiency, and collaborates with relevant organizations. It also helps in the formation of new farmers’ associations, and procures inputs at discounted rates. Organizations like Dai-ASME (Development Alternatives, Inc.), OXFam Novib, and ICCO (Inter-Charge Charity Organization) have been supporting the FAA in strengthening its various aspects.

Beekeepers and Farmers’ Association of Artik
This association aims at the following: promotion of apiculture and farming; solving problems in the field, and fostering marketing of produce; investing in new technologies and promoting relevant information, education and consultation; contributing to the development of sustainable production in Shirak marz.

Armenian Agrarian Peasants’ Union
The Union considers itself an NGO, and has the following mandate: to promote reforms in agriculture and farming; to coordinate efforts of members to improve the quality of agricultural products and their marketability; to promote cooperation for the realization of agricultural products and encourage small and medium enterprise development in rural areas; to develop marketing relationships; inform members about tax regulations; to implement projects for economic development of rural communities; and to provide information and training to its members.

SATSIL Seed Producers Association
Its mission is to unite seed producers in the country and improve the quality of the seed supplied to farms and individual farmers, and to promote application of new technologies in agriculture.

Other farmer's based organisations are:

  • Association of Farmers of Armenia (Hay Farmers).
  • Water User Associations (several hundred in number).
  • Organic Food Producers and Consumers Association (OFPCA).

 

List of Extension Providers

icon target The following list shows an excerpt from the GFRAS Directory of Extension Providers for Armenia. Some of these entries may be specially marked for having more detailed information in the database of the Worldwide Extension Study WWES.

Training

Training options for extension professionals

The pre-service education in agricultural disciplines including extension may be pursued at the following academic institutions:

  • Armenian State Agrarian University, Yerevan.
  • Yerevan Agricultural University, LLC, Yerevan.

In-service training for extension staff may be arranged at the following institutions:

  • Armenian State Agrarian University, Yerevan.
  • Yerevan Agricultural University, LLC, Yerevan.
  • The Agribusiness Teaching Center, Armenian State Agrarian University, Yerevan.
  • Agricultural Research Centers, depending on the agricultural commodity in which in-service training is needed.
  • International Center for Agribusiness Research and Education (ICARE).
  • Center for Agribusiness and Rural Development Foundation (CARD).
  • At one of the 10 National Agricultural Colleges located in seven marzs (at Nor Geghi, Yerevan, Gavar, Stepanavan, Vanadzor, Gyumri/Shirak, Armavir, Goris, Masis, and Spitak).

ICT

Info-mediaries and information and communication technology (ict) for agriculture and extension

At the peak of the Soviet-era Armenia’s growth as the location of science, research and high-tech manufacturing in 1987, the science and technology sector is said to have employed about 100,000 specialists.  After independence, in spite of huge economic and some other problems, Armenia has been prospering in ICT sector. There is Yerevan University of Management and Information Technologies, offering degree programs in ICT related disciplines. Then, there is the European Regional Institute of Information and Communication Technologies located in Yerevan.  The Armenian Government has declared ICT sector as a key priority for its economic development. An ICT Master Strategy has also been prepared.

According to the World Bank in 2011, the number of mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) in Armenia was 103.56. During the same year, the number of Internet users (per 100 people) in the country was 32. The American University of Armenia hosted the “Tech Needs Girls” forum, which was organized in celebration of the International Girls in ICT Day in 2013. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has implemented three projects from 1999 to 2004. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has implemented a project on Virtual Extension, Research and Communication Network- VERCON.

Till now, four ICT applications have been made in Armenia in support of extension: (1) the implementation of FAO’s VERCON project; (2) a private company VISTAA maintaining a database of 160 extension advisers; (3) The Agricultural Support Republic Center of the Ministry of Agriculture maintaining a database of researchers and technology assessment; (4) The Agricultural Support Republic Center of the Ministry of Agriculture operating AgroWeb website to disseminate marketing information to the public. The above mentioned positive ICT related developments are promising and it is expected that extension and advisory services will also benefit from the ICT progress in a substantial way.

Resources

Resources and references

Grigoryan, A. 2007. Linking Small-Scale Farmers to Local and Export Markets through Farmer Associations: Cost [Case] of Milk, Fruit and Vegetable Producers of Armenia. PowerPoint presentation made at the Regional Seminar on Changing Agri-Food Markets’ Impact upon Small-Scale Farmers, held at Warsaw; November 8-9, 2007.

Grigoryan, A., T. Hakhnazaryan, and N.A. Kwapong 2008. Farmers Organization in the Development of Agriculture in the South Caucasus: Case of Armenia. Paper prepared for presentation at the ICA Research Conference 2008 on The Role of Co-operatives in Sustaining Development and Fostering Social Responsibility, held at Trento, Italy; 15-18 October, 2008.

Grigoryan, A., V. Urutyan, and T. Hakhnazaryan. 2007. Increasing Presence of Farmer Associations in Local and Export Markets: Case of Armenian Milk, Fruit and Vegetable Producers. Paper prepared for presentation at the Regional Seminar on Changing Agri-Food Markets’ Impact upon Small-Scale Farmers: Results of Re-governing Markets Project, held at Warsaw University, Poland; November 8-9, 2007.

Harutunyan, A., M. Nikoghosyan, and P. Sommers 2003. VISTAA--a private extension organization in Armenia. BeraterInnen News 2/2003, Pp. 56-60.

Houseman, I. (2010). The development of advisory services in Armenia: Cost recovery issues. Paper presented at the 44th Annual Conference of the South African Society for Agricultural Extension, South Africa; 4-7 May, 2010

Kasarjyan, M., G. Buchenrieder, J. Fritzsch, and A. Wolz.2009. Information and Communication Needs Assessment of National Agricultural Research and Extension Systems and their Stakeholders in Armenia. Project TCP/ARM/3103 funded by FAO; draft final report.

Miller, B. (work in progress). Dysfunctional Institutions – Agrogitaspiur. Chapter 17 of Vita and Armenia Memoir. Available at: http://millerbille.com/chapter_17_agrogitaspiur.

Sandukhchyan, D. and Y. Misnikov. 2004. Evaluation Report of UNDP Armenia ICT-for-Development Program: e-Governance System for Territorial Administrations (ARM/02/012); Support to Information Society and Democratic Governance (ARM/01/001); International Assistance Database for Armenia (ARM/99/005).

Scannell, N.J., J.G. Newton, and R. Ohanian (no date; probably 2001). Viticulture, wine production, and agriculture in Armenia: Economic sectors in transition. The Journal of Applied Business Research, Volume 18, Number 4; Pp. 13-23.

Shen NGO. (2012. Milestones of Organic Agriculture in Armenia.

Tumanian, R. 2006. Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles: Armenia.

UNEP. 2012. Green Economy Advisory Services: Armenia.

USAID.2011. ICT Country Profile: Armenia 2011. Regional Competitiveness Initiative.

Vanyan, A., J. Hanson, and I. Houseman. 2009. Assessing the Impact of the Agricultural Advisory System in Armenia. In Theory and Practice of Advisory Work in a Time of Turbulences; XIX European Seminar on Extension education, held at Assisi, Perugia, Italy; 15-19 September, 2009.

World Bank. 2007. Integrating Environment into Agriculture and Forestry: Progress and Prospects in Eastern Europe and Central Asia; Volume II; Armenia; Country Review.

Yaralyan, N.2011. VERCON: ICT Strengthening Agricultural Research and Extension in Armenia. FAO Representation in Armenia.

More

More documents

Feedback ?

Do you have corrections or additions to this article? Please use the commenting feature below to submit your contribution. And please be specific, point out what is missing, what is wrong, or what needs to be updated.

We will then incorporate your contribution into the main text.

Thank you!

 

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (July 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

Add comment


Security code
Refresh