sudanThe Sudan is an Arab state situated in northeast Africa, with a 530 miles coastline along the Red Sea. Its capital is Khartoum. The population is about 30 million (excluding the South Sudan), growing at an annual rate of about 2.55 percent. The country is divided into 17 decentralized states (wilayah), which are further divided into 133 districts.

Agriculture is the main economic sector contributing 39 per cent to the GDP and employing about 80 percent of the workforce. Livestock and fisheries are also important sectors. The main export crop is cotton although its volume has been declining in recent years. Also, this crop is being replaced by sorghum, wheat and groundnuts in the interest of food security.

Context

Context

The Sudan is divided into several zones namely desert, semi-desert, low rainfall savanna, high rainfall savanna, flood, and mountain vegetation. The Gezira agricultural irrigation system, located between the Blue and the White Nile rivers, is considered as the largest project of its kind in the world. In addition,, there are seasonal rivers and water courses, and groundwater. Irrigated and rain-fed areas have good farming but semi-desert areas confront sand storms, and their nomadic population keeps traveling with its herds of sheep and camels. Land tenure is a serious issue both in cultivated and pasture areas.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator Value Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

1367310

57.54

20,160,000

8.48

0.47

2009

2009

2009

2009

2009

Fertilizer consumption (Kg per hectare of arable land) 7.86 2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

23.62

103

5.56

14.92

2010

2009

2009

2009

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) 1270 2010

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

70.21

81.70

92.83

88.05

2009

2008

2009

2009

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

40.53

10.16

2010

2008

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population*

Rural population (% of total population)*

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (%

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

43,552,000

18.32

26,086,000

59.89

51.53

7,124,000

67.70

39.45

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

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Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (June 2012)
  • Edited by Burt E. Swanson
  • The latest information on extension organization was provided by Dr. Adil Yousef, Director-General, Technology Transfer and Extension Administration, Khartoum.
  • The information on private training institutions was provided by Ms. Omelnisa El Fakei, National Specialist in Rural Development, EU/FAO project OSRO/SUD/622/MUL. 

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