senegalFor a long time, agricultural extension in Senegal was a prerogative of the government in the absence of a viable private sector. Drastic changes in economic policies resulting from the introduction of Structural Adjustment Programs initiated by IMF in the 1980s lead to market liberalization and a decline in government intervention. Agricultural extension services were previously provided by the Ministry of Rural Development (MDR), the Ministry of Social Development (MSD) through their departments of agriculture and livestock respectively and numerous parastatal executing agencies (SAED, SODEFIDEX, SODEVA, SOMIVAC, and SODAGRI).


A Brief History of Public Extension Policies, Resources and Advisory Activities in Senegal

The government approach to agricultural extension called the National Agricultural Extension Program (NAEP) that began in 1985 as part of the country’s new agricultural policy utilized three organizational approaches to deliver information to farmers namely: Animation Rurale or Rural Mobilization, Commodity-oriented extension, and the Ministry of Agriculture’s government extension service. Animation Rurale focused on the sensitization and education of farmers in community development while commodity-oriented extension was similar to project-type extension and promoted the production of cash crops for export. The uniqueness of the NAEP is that the program had a small administrative and technical component at the top and used field staff of the National Agricultural Service (NAS) and volunteers of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to conduct its programs (Sagna and Holmes, 1998). The NAEP used the French edition of the World Bank’s Training and Visit System (T&V) as an operating framework to reach out to farmers and also to secure funding from the World Bank to financially support its agricultural extension program.

Since the World Bank supported National Extension Services Project (PNVA) began in 1990, the institutional structure for extension delivery has been placed under one umbrella department, namely, the Extension Management Unit which span both MDR and MSD ministries (Venkatesan and Kampen, 1998). All other ministries which had previously fielded separate extension services, and parastatals (SODEVA, SODEFIDEX, SAED and DERBAC) whose activities have not been privatized, now operate under the extension services managed by the Extension Management Unit.  The current unified PNVA Extension Management Unit has created linkages with research institutions by incorporating the Institut Senegalais de la Recherche Agronomique (National Agronomic Research Institute of Senegal) as part of its overall management of extension services (Venkatesan and Kampen, 1998).

Because of the poor performance of Senegal's agriculture, despite implementation of the National Agricultural and Rural Extension Program, the creation of an agency such as the National Extension Services Agency (ANCAR) became necessary (World Bank, 1999). ANCAR was a new approach to providing rural extension services by developing strong partnerships among all stakeholders in agriculture. This approach represented a pluralistic system where public and private sectors including NGOs and other community or farmer-based organizations partner in the delivery of agricultural extension and advisory services to farmers. The involvement of the private sector in policy design and implementation has been enhanced through the National Council for Rural Co-operation (CNCR). The CNCR represents producers’ associations and plays a central role in dialogue between the government, donors and producers on agro-related issues. The state’s direct control over agricultural marketing has been reduced and agricultural trade has been liberalized. Now, the Ministry of Agriculture outsources its agricultural extension services to the private sector and is expected to play a further role in agricultural policy formation (World Bank, 1999). Rural producer organizations and their associations are actively involved themselves to improve these services.

IFPRI 2012


# Supplier developmentChrissie 2017-06-21 11:09
Are there any NGOs operating in Senegal on supplier development? What are their successes?