polandPoland is a Central European, ex-communist country. It is a member of the European Union (EU) with a population of about 3.8 million. Poland’s capital is Warsaw. The country has several large lakes, the Baltic Sea coast in the north-west, and mountains in the southern region.  Administratively, Poland comprises 16 voivodeships (equivalent of provinces), which are divided into powiats (equivalent of counties). The powiats are sub-divided into gminas (also called as municipalities or communes). Poland enjoys a liberalized, fast growing and sound economy, and as such, is considered as a regional economic power.

Context

Context

The agricultural sector of Poland comprises about 2 million private farms, whose average size, according to a EU survey done in 2007, was 12.3 hectares. Poland is one of the largest producers of potatoes, rye, apples, and sugar beets in the world. Other crops include wheat, barley, oats, fodder, flax, hops, tobacco, and fruits. Following a mixed farming pattern, livestock including cattle, pigs, and poultry are also raised on the farms. Agricultural exports comprise grains, sugar, pork, processed meat, and dairy products. Farmers generally try to get supplemental income from various sources especially through hosting paid guests. Some of the main agricultural problems in Poland are: scattered pieces of individually-owned farms; soil erosion caused by earlier deforestation; acidic and sandy soils; high prices of fertilizers and pesticides; and tough competition with imported commodities and food products, faced by farmers.  Forestry is also an important economic sub-sector in Poland.

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq. km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

147,790

48.59

11,098,000

36.48

0.28

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

178.90

2010

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

3.53

103.59

12.02

8.30

2010

2011

2012

2012

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

12,660

2012

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

99.51

99.88

99.78

100.10

98.8

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

132.68

65

2012

2012

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

38,542,737

126.69

15,091,562

39.15

14.67

18,324,700

2,960,000

16.15

36.18

2012

2011

2012

2012

2011

2011

2010

2011

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (October 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

 

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