romaniaRomania is an East European country bordering the Black Sea. Its capital is Bucharest and the population is about 21 million. Economically, Romania joined the European Union in 2007, and is economically rated by the World Bank as an upper-middle-income country. The country is administratively divided into 41 counties, which are administered by county councils. Each county is sub-divided into cities, towns and municipalities (total number 319) and communes (total number 2,705), which have their own mayors and local councils.

Context

Context

The country is mountainous in the north and more so in the center while the south is covered by the vast Danube River Valley. The climate is temperate, continental. Romania enjoys pleasant springs, mostly warm summers with some hot locations, rainy and cool autumns, and cold, sometimes freezing winters with some rain but mostly snow falling on the western mountains. Blowing humid and dry winds is a feature of the Romania’s climate.

Romania is basically an agricultural country. In 2009, the agricultural sector contributed about 12.4 percent to the national GDP. However, the number of people employed in agriculture has been steadily declining in recent years. Romania has gone through land reforms restructuring of its farming sector since 1989. Redistribution of the Soviet-era collective state farms among people has generated more than 3.9 million farm holdings, of which 1.6 million are of less than one hectare, 1.1 million are of less than three hectares, 290,000 are in the range of 10-20 hectares, and 255 are of more than 2,000 hectares (the latter cultivating 11 percent of the agricultural area). One major result of the land restitution measures has been the dominance of subsistence farming in Romania which, apart from being of certain possible public benefits, is economically not feasible and has apparently slowed down the flourishing of commercial agriculture. Major crops grown are corn and wheat, covering most of the arable land. Other crops include barley, oats, rice, hay, sunflowers, potatoes, soybeans, sugar beets and tobacco. Grapes for wine making are also grown. Livestock include sheep, cattle, horses, pigs, poultry and rabbits. Fishery is popular in Black Sea coastal area and the Danube Delta.

Romania, as a member of the European Union, has been receiving its share of benefits like other new member states. However, at the same time, Romania has been emerging more as a donor of development assistance than a recipient of international aid. The Modernizing Agricultural Knowledge & Information Systems Project (MAKIS), financed by the World Bank, was implemented from 2005 to 2013. The objective of the project was to enhance productivity and quality of agro-food products, modernize and improve the food processing and marketing chains, and increase agricultural incomes for sustainable development. The project worked closely with agricultural universities located in different regions of Romania. Other extension related projects in Romania include Extension of Implementing Local Agenda 21 in Romania (UNDP/Ministry of European Integration), Extension for Eco-profit sub-project, and Consortium of Rural Development and Extension Sub-project, all under the Agricultural Services Support Project (World Bank).

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

139,820

60.74

8,995,000

39.08

0.42

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

48.49

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

6.86

100.42

8.54

7.42

2012

2011

2011

2011

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

8420

2012

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

97.67

97.43

97.15

100.28

98.92

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

109.15

44.02

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)

21,326,905

92.91

10,055,721

47.15

8.44

10,248,388

869,000

8.47

43.26

2012

2011

2012

2012

2010

2011

2010

2011

2011

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (July 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

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