russiaRussia, officially also known as the Russian Federation, comprises the north-eastern part of Eurasia. Geographically, it is the largest country in the world covering 12.6 per cent area of the entire earth, spanning 11 time zones, and sprawling more than 9,000 km from east to west and more than 4,000 km from north to south. Russia has common land border with 14 countries, and shares sea borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the USA’s state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The country is rich in natural resources such as about 120,000 rivers and two million fresh and salt lakes, forests, oil and natural gas. Russia’s population is 143.5 million (2012), and the capital is Moscow. Administratively and politically, Russia comprises 87 “subjects” including 46 provinces (oblasts), 21 republics, 9 territories (krais), 4 autonomous districts (okrugs), 1 autonomous oblast, and two federal cities, Moscow and Saint-Petersburg, which function as separate regions.  

Context

Context

Due to its enormous size, Russia has a variety of climatic zones, varying from marine climate in the farthest north-west to sharply continental climate in Siberia, and monsoon climate in the far-east. Climatic and geographic factors limit Russia’s agricultural operations to about 10 per cent of its total land area, of which about 60 per cent is used for crops and the remainder for pasture and meadow. Key crops grown are wheat (both winter and spring), barley, corn, rice, sugar beet, sunflower, potatoes, vegetables, fruits and flax. The average farm size in central Russia is 150 hectares (mostly growing potatoes, vegetables and fruits), but larger farms also exist in some regions (concentrating on the production of grains and husbandry products).  Sometimes, a few neighboring farms join to grow the same crop with the objective of mechanized cultivation.  Cattle, sheep, goat, pig and poultry constitute Russia’s livestock sector. Fishery is also an important economic sector due to Russia’s access to three oceans—the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific. 

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq. km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

2,152,500

13.14

121,500,000

7.41

0.84

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

15.77

2010

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

3.86

117.84

3.15

12.33

2012

2011

2012

2012

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

12,700

2012

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

99.68

99.75

99.66

100.09

97.53

2010

2010

2010

2010

2009

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

183.51

53.27

2012

2012

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

143,533,000

8.72

37,323,173

26

N.A.

77,062,828

6,275,000

8.14

24.63

2012

2011

2012

2012

2012

2010

2011

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO 

Acknowledgements 

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (February 2014)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson