russiaRussia, officially also known as the Russian Federation, comprises the north-eastern part of Eurasia. Geographically, it is the largest country in the world covering 12.6 per cent area of the entire earth, spanning 11 time zones, and sprawling more than 9,000 km from east to west and more than 4,000 km from north to south. Russia has common land border with 14 countries, and shares sea borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the USA’s state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The country is rich in natural resources such as about 120,000 rivers and two million fresh and salt lakes, forests, oil and natural gas. Russia’s population is 143.5 million (2012), and the capital is Moscow. Administratively and politically, Russia comprises 87 “subjects” including 46 provinces (oblasts), 21 republics, 9 territories (krais), 4 autonomous districts (okrugs), 1 autonomous oblast, and two federal cities, Moscow and Saint-Petersburg, which function as separate regions.  

Context

Context

Due to its enormous size, Russia has a variety of climatic zones, varying from marine climate in the farthest north-west to sharply continental climate in Siberia, and monsoon climate in the far-east. Climatic and geographic factors limit Russia’s agricultural operations to about 10 per cent of its total land area, of which about 60 per cent is used for crops and the remainder for pasture and meadow. Key crops grown are wheat (both winter and spring), barley, corn, rice, sugar beet, sunflower, potatoes, vegetables, fruits and flax. The average farm size in central Russia is 150 hectares (mostly growing potatoes, vegetables and fruits), but larger farms also exist in some regions (concentrating on the production of grains and husbandry products).  Sometimes, a few neighboring farms join to grow the same crop with the objective of mechanized cultivation.  Cattle, sheep, goat, pig and poultry constitute Russia’s livestock sector. Fishery is also an important economic sector due to Russia’s access to three oceans—the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific. 

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq. km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

2,152,500

13.14

121,500,000

7.41

0.84

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

15.77

2010

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

3.86

117.84

3.15

12.33

2012

2011

2012

2012

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

12,700

2012

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

99.68

99.75

99.66

100.09

97.53

2010

2010

2010

2010

2009

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

183.51

53.27

2012

2012

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

143,533,000

8.72

37,323,173

26

N.A.

77,062,828

6,275,000

8.14

24.63

2012

2011

2012

2012

2012

2010

2011

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO 

History

History of extension and the enabling environment

Prior to 1991, Russia was communist Soviet Union. The Soviet government started implementing the farm collectivization policy in 1929. Land, machinery, livestock, and grain stores were taken away from the peasants and converted into state-operated, large sized collective farms, which followed commands of the central government regarding what, when and how much to grow. Farmers employed to work on these farms were paid the same wages, no matter what they produced -- a practice that lacked incentives for hard work hence negatively affecting the productivity. The state farms were run by multi-disciplinary teams of agricultural specialists. The government also allotted small plots to individual farm households for subsistence farming to meet their food needs and sell any surplus. There was no conventional type of agricultural extension or advisory service for these farm families, but they still performed very well in agricultural production.

Reform measures during the 1980s

In the 1980s, the Soviet government tried to enhance the productivity by organizing “contract brigades” that comprised 10 to 30 farm workers who managed a piece of land leased from a state or collective farm. As a measure of motivation, the farm workers’ remuneration was determined by the yield they obtained. Till the mid-1980s, professional training for agricultural administrators and specialists was given at the institutions of higher learning. At lower level, schools and vocational training institutes provided in-service training to the staff. These arrangements, however, could not alleviate the inefficiency of the prevailing agricultural system. 

Agricultural land reforms

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia became a single country in 1991, and embarked on transition from the centralized economy to a market economy. Land reforms were initiated which still continues. Following a rather complex process in which both political and economic concerns played their part, the land belonging to the state-owned collective farms was redistributed among people in many forms such as private household ownership of agricultural plots, shared land in large farms, corporate farms, state land leased to farmers, etc.  As the number of private land owners and that of institutions like agricultural cooperatives and limited liability companies went up so did the need for agricultural extension and capacity building services. 

Information Consulting Service

In the 1990s, an Information Consulting Service (ICS) was created within the Ministry of Agriculture with the mandate to provide farmers with the information on improved technologies, innovative projects, agri-business and marketing. ICS Centers were established at various administrative levels, staffed by experienced agricultural specialists from research and other organizations. For capacity building purposes, Training Consulting Centers were also established at various educational and vocational institutions. A coordination mechanism was created at regional level in the form of an ICS-Agricultural Sector Council that comprised representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and regional ICS.  The ICS staff was given training at the Moscow Agricultural Academy. The ICS was supported by a number of domestic and international projects that aimed at agricultural reforms and capacity building. One common output of these projects was a manual, “The Organization of Information Consulting Service in the Agricultural Sector”. In retrospective, the performance of the ICS remained less than satisfactory. 

International support 

Several projects were initiated to establish and strengthen agricultural extension services in Russia. A few key examples are presented below. 

  • Russian-American Farm Privatization Project (RAFPP; 1992-1998)
    The RAFPP’s goal was to develop a research and demonstration farm as a focal point, centrally located in an area surrounded by selected families who would, with mentoring from U.S. farm families, begin developing private farms. This demonstration farm of 850 hectares was set up in the rural north-west Russia involving 23 Russian families each of which was to develop a 50-60 hectare private farm. The mentor American farm families lived for a period of 18 to 30 months at the research and demonstration farm, and assisted the Russian farm families with individual consultations on agricultural issues, organized educational programs, and also conducted crops and livestock research and demonstrations applicable to small farms. 

    Based on the success of this particular experience, the Leningrad Oblast Ministry of Agriculture formed, with the assistance of RAFPP, the Information and Advisory Service modeled after the U.S. extension service. RAFPP also worked with regional universities and academies to strengthen the capabilities of the Information and Advisory Service. Several American universities were involved in RAFPP including Michigan State University, Ohio State University, and University of California (Davis). These universities collaborated with two active partner Russian institutions namely the St. Petersburg State Agrarian University (SPSAU), and the Shushary Academy of Agribusiness Management (AAM). Later, the AAM, with the cooperation of the World Bank-sponsored Agricultural Reform Implementation Support (ARIS) program, developed a training program for new staff of the extension system.
  • Farmer-to-Farmer Program (F2F)
    ACDI/VOCA, a U.S. consulting company, implemented the USAID-funded F2F Program in Russia from 1992 to 2008. Under this program, short-term volunteer consultants advised Russian farmers on technology transfer, quality control, product diversity, business strategy and human resources management, among other agribusiness issues. They also helped Russian agribusinesses develop over 631 new bakeries, dairy and meat products and support services including farm extension services. The program forged lasting partnership between the Moscow State Agricultural Engineering University and several U.S. universities including Pennsylvania State University and the University of Maryland.  
  • Ag Initiative
    In December 1999, the Russian Ministry of Agriculture established a Division of Sustainable Agriculture Extension Service (DSAES) as an organ of the Ministry. DSAES was given a mandate to establish 51 new Sustainable Agriculture Extension Centers (SAEC) across Russia with the assistance of a USA-based NGO, Center for Citizen Initiatives (CCI). The first SAEC was formed in Sergiev Posad, and as it proved to be promising, the Ministry decided to establish 11 more SAECs in collaboration with the CCI. USAID provided a small grant and some civil society foundations provided additional funding. Directors of the new centers were trained at Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Centers in USA. The collaboration between the Russian Ministry of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Agriculture continues. All 51 SAECs have been established, and 287 Agricultural Colleges are adopting a four-year curriculum in sustainable agriculture.
  • Assistance to the Association of Farm Advisory Services of South Russia and Lower Volga Regions
    This three-year project, started around 2000, was funded by the European Community. The assistance included the identification of pilot sites as project beneficiaries, development of local private farm extension, information and advisory services, contact and coordination with emerging agricultural electronic data networks and collaboration with regional administrations in analyzing project results.
  • Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation (2003-2007)
    This project was funded by the European Commission, and was implemented by University of Hohenheim (Germany). It had the following four objectives: 

    a) Promote the development of Russian agriculture.
    b) Provide an opportunity to young consultants and managers of Russian Extension Service to gain new knowledge and skills in consulting.
    c) Increase the quality of the teaching process by dissemination and introduction of updated teaching approaches, develop and adapt teaching materials, renew and upgrade syllabi, manuals, etc.
    d) Establish new departments/chairs in Russian agrarian universities combined into a network which will provide training and continuously develop methodology for agricultural extension with long term perspective.

Besides University of Hohenheim, the following 12 academic institutions were engaged in the project as partners:

  1. Wageningen University, The Netherlands
  2. Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
  3. Stavropol State Agricultural University
  4. Buryat State Agricultural University, Ulan Ude
  5. Novosibirsk State Agricultural University
  6. Omsk State Agricultural University
  7. Orel State Agricultural Academy
  8. Primorskaya State Agricultural Academy, Ussurisk
  9. Samara State Agricultural Academy
  10. St. Petersburg State Agricultural University
  11. Voronezh State Agricultural University
  12. Yaroslavl State Agricultural Academy
  • Developing Advisory Services in North-Western Russia (2010-2012)
    The aim of this project was to build the capacity of existing state-funded agricultural training and advisory structure in North Western Russia and support local farms in developing their production. Focal geographical areas of the project are the Murmansk and Leningrad Oblasts as well as the Republic of Karelia. The project is being operated by Pro Agria, an agricultural organization based in Finland.

Extension Providers

Major institutions providing extension/advisory services

Public Institutions

Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation
The Ministry of Agriculture (Minselkhoz) is the federal executive body responsible for drafting and implementing government policy and legal regulation in the agriculture and related industries such as livestock and fishery farming. Among several other functions, the Ministry provides state services related to agriculture, including sustainable development of rural areas. The Division of Sustainable Agriculture Extension Service (DSAES), established in by the Ministry in 1999, oversees the provision of public extension and advisory services to the farmers. Hundreds of decentralized, autonomous and semi-autonomous institutions related to agriculture and rural development based at various administrative levels, coordinate, supervise and provide the extension and advisory services in the field. Some regions and oblasts including Leningrad and Sergiev Posad have Sustainable Agriculture Extension Centers (SAEC) and Information Consulting Service (ICS) Centers that provide extension services to the farmers.

Agricultural research institutes

Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences (RAAS
The Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences is the highest autonomous scientific institution in the agro-industrial complex of Russia for scientific support. The RAAS covers agricultural research and advanced agricultural education. It organizes events on scientific information and consulting, and collaborates with relevant institutions at all levels.  The Academy enjoys a vast network of research institutions, designing and technological organizations, pilot and experimental farms (5.8 million hectares of land, over 360,000 heads of cattle, 130,000 heads of pigs, 65,000 heads of sheep and 1.6 million heads of poultry), and enterprises, and many other institutions. In 2000, RAAS had under its jurisdiction 199 research institutes with each focusing on specific agricultural discipline, and 24 agricultural pilot stations, including 47 centers on plant breeding, animal breeding, and biotechnology. The number of RAAS staff runs in thousands. RAAS representatives serve on agriculture related policy and advisory bodies. Its network institutions, in addition to generating and adapting improved technologies, collaborate with the staff of extension and advisory centers in the field.

A 9-page long list of research institutes may be seen at the AgroWeb Russian Federation, a site created and maintained by the government with the assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. A few random examples from the list of hundreds of agricultural research institutes are as follows:

  1. All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Machine and Tractor Fleet Operation and Repair.
  2. All-Russia Research and Development Design and Technology Institute of Livestock Breeding Mechanization.
  3. All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Butter and Cheese Production.
  4. All-Russia Research and Development Institute for Rice.
  5. All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Veterinary Virology and Microbiology.
  6. All-Russia Research and Development Production and Technology Institute of Organic Fertilizers and Peat.
  7. V.A. Afanasiev Research and Development Institute of Fur Animals and Rabbit Farming.

Agricultural universities, academies and colleges

Russia has 58 universities of higher professional education. In 2000, more than 84,000 students entered agricultural universities. There are 285 agricultural colleges located in 71 subjects of Russia, in addition to 40 agricultural academies.

Certain agricultural universities were involved in extension and advisory work under various national and donor-funded projects, and are still playing an important role in extension in terms of offering degree programs in agriculture, capacity building of extension staff, and serving in advisory role. A few examples are:

  • Moscow Timiry Azev Agricultural Academy (MTAA)
    Operates the Federal Training Center for Extension Service Staff  where extension services staff receives in-service training. The center has several branches, which are based at various agricultural institutions such as Tver Agricultural Academy (since 1997), Omsk Agricultural University (since 1998), Buratia’s Extension Center within the Buratia Agricultural Academy (since 1999), and Extension Service Center of Dmitrovsky rayons of Moscow region; and had total of 20 extension staff in 1999. 
  • St. Petersburg State Agrarian University (SPSAU):
    artner Russian institution in the Russian-American Farm Privatization Project (RAFPP; 1992-1998).
  • Shushary Academy of Agribusiness Management (AAM)
    Partner Russian institution in the Russian-American Farm Privatization Project (RAFPP; 1992-1998); developed a training program for new extension staff in cooperation with a World Bank project.
  • Moscow State Agricultural Engineering University
    Actively involved in Farmer-to-Farmer Program (1992-2008).
  • Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Stavropol State Agricultural University
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Buryat State Agricultural University, Ulan Ude
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Novosibirsk State Agricultural University
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Omsk State Agricultural University
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Orel State Agricultural Academy
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Primorskaya State Agricultural Academy, Ussurisk
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Samara State Agricultural Academy
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • St. Petersburg State Agricultural University
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Voronezh State Agricultural University
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Yaroslavl State Agricultural Academy
    Actively involved in the Academic Network for Agricultural Extension in the Russian Federation Project (2003-2007).
  • Lomonosov Moscow State University
    operates the Eurasian Center for Food Security (ECFS), which covers the Central Asia and South Caucasus, but initially focuses on Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

Non-Public Institutions

Private sector

Although some externally funded projects have tried to introduce the concept of private advisory services in Russia yet there is no evidence that any significant fee-based extension and advisory services are operating in the country. The extension and advisory system in Russia is still evolving and remains public and cost-free for the farmers. It may be assumed that with the passage of time, Russia might experiment with a partial or full private advisory service in certain parts of the country for certain types of producers. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, a considerable number of old joint companies have modified themselves into private, commercial companies, and probably new companies are emerging. Some companies are working in partnership with foreign companies which have branch offices in Russia, and have international business operations. AgroTech Russia 2013, the 8th international specialized exhibition for agricultural machinery and investment goods for crop production was held at Moscow’s All-Russian Exhibition Center from 9 to 12 October 2013.

A few examples of private companies involved in various types of commercial agricultural activities in Russia are presented below:

  • Lavka
    It is a rather unconventional, unique Russian company that takes orders for fresh food items produced by local farmers, and supplies it at doorsteps of the customers. Orders may be placed for meat, poultry, fish, seafood, dairy products, and other items like jams, pickles, vegetables, fruits, etc. 
  • Rostselmash
    A Russian company dealing in agricultural equipment; founded in 1929; based in Rostov-on-Don; became fully privatized in 2000; produces combine harvesters.
  • Razgulay Group
    One of the biggest agribusiness Russian group companies; based in Moscow; trades internationally through subsidiaries in grain and grain products including raw sugar, sugar beet, and milk; its subsidiary Razgulay-Agro Company manages agricultural assets of the Group, invest in expansion of land, purchases agricultural equipment and introduces advanced crop production technologies.
  • Black Earth Farming
    A public, invest-run agricultural business company founded in 2005; based in Russia, with the goal of acquiring cheap, neglected but fertile land in the fertile Black Earth regions of Russia.
  • PhosAgro
    A Russian accompany based in Moscow; founded in 2003; produces fertilizer, phosphates and feed phosphates.
  • Prodimex
    A giant agricultural company in Russia that produces white sugar from sugar beets and sugar cane; also deals in beef pulp as animal fodder additive; has several enterprises in Russia; and enjoys international businesses.
  • Volga Farming Ltd.
    An agricultural company that owns and leases about 65,000 hectares of land in fertile regions of Russia; founded in 2007; focuses on cultivation of grain and oil crops; and has acquired assets of a few Russian companies.
  • EkoNiva
    A Russo-German farming company; started operations in Russia in 1994; now has 25 enterprises in several Russian cities; in the business of farm machinery, seeds, and the state-of-the-art farming technologies.
  • Acron Group
    A Russian group of several related companies; founded in 1961; based in Velikiy Novgorod; and one of the leading mineral fertilizer producers with international business.

Non-governmental organizations

Various sources give different number of NGOs in Russia. Without judging the reliability and accuracy of these sources, it can be safely said that the number of NGOs runs in thousands.  While many Russian NGOs have apparently been involved in non-agricultural activities, there is no information readily available on the involvement of any Russian NGO engaged in agricultural extension and advisory work. There are, however, quite a high number of international NGOs based in Russia whose areas of activities include food security, gender, community development, humanitarian assistance, volunteer technical assistance, poverty alleviation, rural environment, and capacity building.

Finland, in particular, has been running for years a Neighboring Area Cooperation program in Russia under which Finnish NGOs and their partner Russian NGOs and other institutions collaborate in implementing development projects. For example, in the project “Developing Self-sufficiency in Agricultural Products on the Valaam Islands” (2006-2009), the Finnish NGO Association of Humanitarian Aid for Karelia worked alongside a Russian NGO Valaam Monastery. In another example, in the project “Strengthening Activities of Private Farmers and Rural Women’s Associations in Tver Oblast”, the Finnish NGO ProAgria Kainuu Rural Advisory Center worked in collaboration with the Russian non-public counterparts comprising Farmers’ Association of the Tver Region, Rural Women’s Organization of the Tver Region, and some government institutions.

Perhaps the most significant example of an international NGO that has played the most significant role in establishing agricultural extension and advisory services in Russia is the Center for Citizen Initiatives (CCI), based in USA, whose contribution has been described in an earlier section. A few examples of other international NGOs present in Russia as shown in a World Bank document are as follows:

Farmers-based associations, cooperatives and societies

Farmers’ associations and cooperatives, all over the world strive for getting maximum benefits, profits, facilities and services for their members. The same is true in case of Russia, but the extent to which they succeed varies and, in many cases, not that encouraging. The number of farmers’ associations in Russia does not seem to be large. No association can be genuinely called as an extension and advisory services provider, but some associations are involved in consulting and information dissemination activities. Names of a few associations are as follows:

  • Russian Association of Rural and Farm Enterprises and Agricultural Cooperatives (AKKOR)
     Probably the largest association; goals include development of farmer self-management; communication and cooperation with public authorities to protect members’ interests; development of agricultural consumers’ cooperative societies; information and consulting services; and economic development of small share holders in collaboration with relevant commercial companies.
  • Association of Pig Breeders
  • National Union of Meat Producers 
  • Association of Farmers’ Households and Russian Agricultural Cooperatives
  • All-Russian Association of Fish Breeders, Entrepreneurs and Exporters

Russia has quite a number of agriculture-related professional and business associations. A few examples are in order:

  • Association of Russian Independent Seeds Companies
  • Association of Branch Unions of the Agro-industrial Complex “ASSAGROS”
  • Russian Association of Zoo Culture, Veterinary and Zoo Industry
  • Russian Association of Tea and Coffee Makers “Roschaikofe”
  • Russian Agricultural Machinery Association (Rosagromash Association)
  • National association of Exporters of Agricultural Products

 The history of agricultural and rural cooperatives in Russia goes back about a century. Various types of cooperatives existed in varying numbers over time. A paper presented in 2011 (Golovina, et al), shows the total number of agricultural production cooperatives in seven federal okrugs of Russia in 2004 as 12,500. A U.S.-based NGO, ACDI/VOCA implemented the Cooperative Development Program (CDP) in Russia in cooperation with USAID and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The CDP established a fund for financing agricultural credit cooperatives, which, according to ACDI/VOCA, since 1998 was successful in increasing the number of rural credit cooperatives 40 times over and membership by 162 times. As of July 1, 2007 through the efforts of ACDI/VOCA and the Russian Government National Project, there were over 136,000 members in 1,698 rural credit cooperatives. More recently, in 2013, the first ever Pan-Russian Congress of Rural Cooperatives was held where a letter from the Russian Prime Minister appreciated the role of rural cooperatives. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, there are 18,000 small and medium agricultural organizations, about 280,000 farms and individual entrepreneurs in Russia, and over two million personal subsidy farms that belong to cooperatives.

List of Extension Providers

icon target The following list shows an excerpt from the GFRAS Directory of Extension Providers for Russia. Some of these entries may be specially marked for having more detailed information in the database of the Worldwide Extension Study WWES.

Training

Training options for extension professionals

For pre-service training, prospective extension professionals may pursue degree programs in various agricultural disciplines in any of the agricultural universities, agricultural colleges and agricultural academies mentioned earlier in another section. For lower level training, vocational training centers and technical schools and colleges may be contacted as they are located throughout Russia and offer a large variety of training courses in practical skills. 

For in-service training, extension staff may contact the following institutions according to their specific needs:

  • Federal Training Center for Extension Service Staff; located in the Moscow Timiry Azev Agricultural Academy (MTAA). 
  • Agricultural universities, mentioned earlier
  • Agricultural colleges, mentioned earlier
  • Agricultural academies, mentioned earlier
  • Agricultural research institutes that have specialized technical and commodity-focused programs.
  • Vocational schools
  • Vocational colleges
  • Technical colleges 

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ICT

Info-mediaries and information and communication technology (ict) for agriculture and extension

The determination of ICT priorities in Russia involves several government institutions and state foundations. The ICT sector has been growing at considerable speed in Russia albeit still behind developed EU countries. There are about 30 professional associations engaged in ICT, most powerful among them being RUSSOFT Association (its database comprises over 1,200 IT companies), Information and Computer Technologies Industry Association (APKIT), and Russian e-Development Partnership (PRIOR). Russia does have a national ICT-related policy along with the Strategy for Development of Information Society in Russia. The USA-based Soros Foundation’s Open Society Institute has been instrumental in providing Internet connectivity by establishing Internet centers at secondary schools and universities in Russia. According to the World Bank, in 2012, the number of mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) in Russia was 183.51. During the same year, the number of Internet users (per 100 people) in the country was 53.27. A forum “Russia ICT Day” was organized at the World Bank in Washington, DC on November 14, 2013. The Russian government delegation for this event comprised 30 top IT executives, and was led by the Federal Minister of Telecom and Communications.

In the agricultural sector of Russia, the “AgroWeb Russian Federation www.cnshb.ru/aw/”, which is a part of the AgroWeb Central and Eastern Europe Network, has been established. The aim of the Russian AgroWeb is to collect and provide information on agricultural institutions and other important agricultural subjects to help users to find information and contacts in the Central and European countries. Apparently, at least some scientific institutions and universities are making use of ICT in their work, but there is no evidence showing that ICT is being incorporated in the extension and advisory system of Russia.

Resources

Resources and references

Belyakov, V., M. Moskalev, and A. Izosimova (2012). Agricultural Education and Extension; Chapter 58: Case Study Russia; in Christine Jakobsson (Ed.). Sustainable Agriculture: Ecosystem Health and Sustainable Agriculture 1; Pp. 444 - 447. Uppsala, Sweden: The Baltic University Program, Uppsala University.

Blagoveshchenskii, G., V. S. Popovtsev, Shevtsova, and V. K. Romanenkov (no date; probably 2001). Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles: Russian Federation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Edwards, M.C., G.E. Briers, and G.C. Shinn (no date; probably 2001). A proposal for taking the university to the people: Developing an extension model for Russia in the 21st century. Available at: 

Efendiev, A. and P. Sorokin (2013). Rural social organization and farmer cooperatives development in Russia and other emerging economies: Comparative analysis. Developing Country Studies, Vol. 3, No. 14, 2013, Pp. 106-115.

FAO (1997). Directory of Agricultural Education and Training Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

FAO (no date; probably 2000). Seed Policy and Programs for the Central and Eastern European Countries: Russia Federation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Golovina, S. (2012). Agricultural Cooperation From Past to Present. Chapter 57: Case Study Russia; in Christine Jakobsson (Ed.). Sustainable Agriculture: Ecosystem Health and Sustainable Agriculture 1; Pp. 440 - 443. Uppsala, Sweden: The Baltic University Program, Uppsala University.

Golovina, S., J. Nilsson, and A. Wolz (2011). The Development of Agricultural Production Cooperatives in the Russian Federation. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Economics and Management of Networks, held at Limassol, Cyprus, December 1 – 3, 2011.

ISTOK-SOYUZ (2009). National ICT Sector and Policy Appraisal Report: Russia 2009.

Janakiram, S. (2005). Rural Information and Knowledge System: A Case Study from Russia. Agricultural Reform Implementation Support (ARIS) Project. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Lerman, Z. and N. Shagaida (2007). Land policies and agricultural land markets in Russia. Land Use Policy, 24 (2007) 14-23 (available online at www.sciencedirect.com).

Serova, E.V. (no date; probably 1999). The Impact of Privatization and Farm Restructuring on the Russian Agriculture; a paper based on a USAID-funded report prepared by the EU. Serova, V. Mogilevtsev, I. Rtishev, and D. Emilin.

Thompson, J. and M. Prusak (13 February 1997). Report on Education, Training and Advisory Services in Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Doc. 7761 of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.

U.S. Library of Congress (no date; probably 2000). Russia-Agriculture [one of many chapters on Russia].

Acknowledgements 

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (February 2014)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

 

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