macedoniaMacedonia presently has two names due to an unresolved name issue: the first name “The Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia” is recognized by the United Nations until the name issue is resolved; the second name “Republic of Macedonia” is used by Macedonia’s embassies, and has been recognized by about 130 countries including the United States. However, it is not recognized by the Government of Greece.

Macedonia is a landlocked, mountainous south-eastern European country, located in the heart of the Balkan Peninsula. Its population is 2.1 million (2012), and the name of its capital is Skopje. Although Macedonia’s economic development has continued since its independence in 1991 yet it remains a less developed country with one of the lowest per capita GDPs in Europe. Administratively, Macedonia is divided into eight statistical regions, which are sub-divided into a total of 80 municipalities.

Context

Context

Macedonia’s climate, in general, is cold, with snowfalls in the winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern region and that along the river Vardar enjoy a Mediterranean climate while rest of the country has continental moderate climate. Mountainous forests cover about 37 per cent of the land. The agricultural sector is an important pillar of Macedonia’s economy. Private farmers own or lease about 80 per cent of the arable land. Approximately 48.6 per cent of the individual farms, which are mostly fragmented, fall in the category of up to 2 hectares each, followed by a category of 2 to 5 hectares each (about 40.2 per cent). The average size of individual farms is around 2.5 to 2.8 hectares. The crops cultivated include wheat, corn, barley, tobacco, potato, tomato, paprika, oilseeds, pulses and poppy. The fruits include apples, pears, quince, plums, cherries, apricots, peaches and walnuts. The livestock sector comprises cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens. The agro-processing industry (wine, lamb and sheep cheese, processed vegetables) is an important economic sub-sector. Some of the agriculture related problems are poor adaptability to changing climate, inadequate irrigation, soil fertility issues and fragmentation of farms. 

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

11,180

44.32

414,000

16.41

0.19

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

67.11

2010

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

11.46

116.7

14.89

12.97

2012

2011

2012

2012

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

4620

2012

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

97.37

98.50

98.82

99.67

97.99

2011

2011

2011

2011

2010

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

108.16

63.14

2012

2012

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

2,105,575

83.42

853,974

40.55

N.A.

964,226

69,000

7.15

31.88

2012

2011

2012

2012

2012

2010

2011

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO 

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (February 2014)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson

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