argentina

Argentina, also known as Argentine Republic, is located on the southeastern side of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and going all the way to the southernmost tip where the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans meet. It is the largest South-American Spanish-speaking country, claiming to have about 97 percent of its population descending from Spain and Italy. The population of Argentina is 41 million, and the name of its capital is Buenos Aires. Argentina comprises 23 provinces. The provinces are administratively divided into departments and municipalities while the autonomous city of Buenos Aires is divided into communes. Although Argentina, an industrial country, is economically rated as an upper-middle class country, it has lately suffered from severe recessions.

Argentina’s climate varies with its locations. Hot summers and dry winters prevail in the north; the central region enjoys a temperate climate with hot summers and cool winters; and the southern part of the country has warm summers but snow-loaded winters.

Context

Context

Argentina’s agriculture, which is one of the most important economic sectors, is characterized by a considerable number of large corporate farms and/or ranches with some going up to a million plus hectares, millions of family farms ranging from 25 to 200 hectares in size, adoption of GMO (genetically modified organisms) and Bt (biotech) crops including soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum and cotton, no-till, precision agriculture, value-addition agro-industry and exports. The country has five distinct agricultural regions namely Pampas, Campos and East Chaco, West Chaco, Central Semiarid, and Patagonia. Major cereal crops include soybeans (the major export crop), wheat, maize, oats and sorghum. Main cash crops are sunflower, linseed, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco. Vegetables include beans, potatoes, onions and garlic, while the fruits include grapefruits, lemon, tangerine, grapes, peaches and plums. Livestock constitute an important economic sub-sector in terms of meat and milk production, and live cattle exports. Pasturing is common and the animals include cattle, sheep, goats, horses and poultry. Fishery is also an important source of economy. 

Key Statistics and Indicators

Indicator

Value

Year  

Agricultural land (sq km)

Agricultural land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares)

Arable land (% of land area)

Arable land (hectares per person)

1,475,480

53.91

38,048,000

13.90

0.93

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)

25.42

2009

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)

Food exports (% of merchandise exports)

Food imports (% of merchandise imports)

10.98

114.09

54.16

2.39

2012

2011

2011

2011

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

5,170

2006

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)

Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

97.79

99.37

99.00

100.37

111.41

2010

2010

2010

2010

2010

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Internet users (per 100 people)

134.92

47.70

2011

2011

Population, total

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

Rural population

Rural population (% of total population)

Agricultural population (% of total population)*

Total economically active population

Total economically active population in agriculture*

Total economically active population in agriculture (in %

    of total economically active population)

Female economically active population in agriculture (% of

     total economically active population in agriculture)*

41,086,927

14.88

3,023,751

7.36

7.56

18,631,591

1,405,000

7.54

10.74

2012

2011

2012

2012

2010

2011

2010

2012

2010

Sources: The World Bank; *Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO

Acknowledgements

  • Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (September 2013)
  • Edited by Burton E. Swanson