Hungary is a relatively small, landlocked country located in Central Europe. Its capital is Budapest, and the population is almost 10 million. Hungary, considered a developed country, joined the European Union in 2004. Its official language is Magyar. The country is famous for its thermal cave system including lakes, which is the largest in the world. Hungary hosts the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia. The country is administratively divided into 19 counties, which are sub-divided into 174 sub-regions. There are 169 towns and 2,904 villages. Hungary has seven geographical regions. In terms of climate, summers are hot with frequent showers, although without high humidity, while winters are mild with snow falls.
The agricultural sector of Hungary, which once used to contribute up to 17 per cent to the national GDP, has been declining since the late 1980s and especially during the 1990s; both the production and employment levels have gone down. Over the years, the number of small individual farms (706,877 in 2005, with average production income of about € 2,000) has been decreasing while the number of agricultural corporations has been increasing (233,703 in 2005), with average production income of about € 220,000 per corporation. Main food crops grown are maize, wheat, barley, pulses, potatoes, chili, garlic, fruits, and aromatic and medicinal plants. Cash crops include sunflower, sugar beet, fiber plants and tobacco. Although the livestock sector has also been declining, yet less than agriculture. The animals raised include cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and poultry. Hungary exports farm machinery and equipment, food preserves, dairy products and seeds of maize and sunflower. Hungarian agricultural companies are exploring huge new markets such as in Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia and Russia.
Some of the causes for the decline of the agricultural sector have been identified as the loss of guaranteed Soviet Union market, reduced purchasing power of people, competition with imported commodities, removal of government subsidies, high prices of inputs, collapse of many agricultural enterprises, and the selling or renting out of land to investors by new owners out of frustration caused by a lack of farming knowledge. The use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) is prohibited in Hungary. Recently (2013), the Hungarian government literally burned 1,000 acres of corn crop which had used genetically modified seed allegedly supplied by the multinational seed company Monsanto.
Agricultural development in Hungary cannot be conceived without appropriate, parallel rural development. According to 2003 data, 87 per cent of the country qualified as rural, that included 96 per cent of the settlements providing home for 47 per cent of the population.
Key Statistics and Indicators
Agricultural land (sq. km)
Agricultural land (% of land area)
Arable land (hectares)
Arable land (% of land area)
Arable land (hectares per person)
Fertilizer consumption (kg per hectare of arable land)
Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)
Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)
Food exports (% of merchandise exports)
Food imports (% of merchandise imports)
GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)
Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)
Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)
Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)
Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)
Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)
Internet users (per 100 people)
Population density (people per sq. km of land area)
Rural population (% of total population)
Agricultural population (% of total population)*
Total economically active population
Total economically active population in agriculture*
Total economically active population in agriculture (in %
of total economically active population)
Female economically active population in agriculture (% of
total economically active population in agriculture)*
History of extension and the enabling environment
Roots of agricultural extension in Hungary can be traced back to the middle ages. Hungary was one of the first European countries to organize professional training in agriculture including extension. Some of agricultural institutes and teaching institutions established a long time ago, which now have different names, such as: Georgikon Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (1797); Agricultural Higher Educational Private Institution of Magyarovar (1818); Fruit Research Institute of Cegled (1852); School of Practical Gardening at Buda (1853); Debrecen National School of Agriculture (1868); Agricultural Vocational Training School in Hodmezovasarhely (1896); Royal Experimental Station for Fish Physiology and Waste Purification (1906); Esterhazy Plant Breeding Plantation (1910); Kalocsai Paprika and Chemical Research Station (1917); Szeged Paprika and Chemical Research Station (1927); and Research Station of the Horticultural Research Institute (1949).
According to a 1930 document of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the following agricultural extension initiatives were being taken in Hungary during the late 1920s, aimed at improving the condition of the villagers:
- Lectures, competitions, and inspection of farms: Since the end of the First World War, the government was paying a great deal of attention to improving the rural life. Instruction being given inside schools and through courses, as well as outside the schools, i.e. extension. School instructors and winter schools of agriculture, and teacher agronomists, all were obliged to provide agricultural training to young people and adults in their respective districts during their time off from the schools. There were 12 schools of agriculture, one in each principal region of the country, and eight (8) winter schools of agriculture. The instructors held lectures for the villagers, organized competitions and meetings, inspected farms and conducted other similar activities. During 1928, as many as 2,060 lectures, were delivered in 252 villages.
- Use of radio: The radio had become very effective medium of agricultural extension outside of schools. The Minister of Agriculture himself was the president of the Committee of Instruction by the Radio, who also gave biweekly lectures on seasonal farm work, prepared by the best Hungarian experts and broadcast through the central studio at Budapest. The government was in the process of preparing a project of law providing for the installation of receiving radio sets in every village.
- Public agricultural libraries: The use of public agricultural libraries were encouraged by the Ministry of Agriculture, which distributed books on agriculture and a few masterpieces of Hungarian literature as gift to the deserving farmers’ clubs. These libraries were established during earlier years in almost all villages, and more were being established by the Ministry.
- Cultural establishments: The Ministry of Agriculture spent large amounts of money on building “cultural establishments”. During the period 1925 to 1929, the Ministry appropriated 2,560,000 pengos on the construction of cultural establishments in 240 villages. This amount represented 25 to 50 percent of the total cost, and the rest was provided by the communes. Every establishment had a public library and a reading hall. Social gatherings were held and out-of-school courses were also taught at the establishments.
- Federation of Hungarian Villages: The Federation of Hungarian Villages, founded in 1920, was meant for the betterment of rural life. It initiated, organized, supported or directed every enterprise for the uplift of the farmers. Itinerant expositions enabled the people to become familiar with agricultural progress, modern farm and home equipment. Study trips were organized to give the peasants an opportunity to learn about their own and other countries. The federation maintained public libraries and assisted in the organization of courses of study, lectures, amateur theatricals and choirs.
Obviously, all such initiatives and field activities were disrupted by the Second World War. Thereafter, Hungary became a part of the Soviet Block, which turned the agricultural sector into a state-operated and top-down planned operation. Individual farms were merged to form large sized state farms and cooperatives, which were run by teams of agricultural engineers. The choice of crops was determined by the needs of the Soviet and affiliated countries’ markets and industries. Small, part-time and semi-subsistence type of family farms co-existed in the shadow of huge farm structures. There was no conventional type of extension or advisory service, but under the umbrella of the “production systems”, teams of agricultural specialists, working mainly with big agricultural cooperatives, collaborated with research institutes, organized input purchase, at times imported modern technology from the western countries, disseminated knowledge among the workers and assisted in marketing of the produce.
With the demise of the Soviet Union, the mid-1990s saw the state-owned and controlled agricultural structure of Hungary abruptly crumpled. A new government took over. The break-up of the state farms and subsequent government steps to allot the land to individual owners led to the creation of hundreds of thousands small, household farms that were not considered as economically viable.
The World Bank financed at least three major projects in Hungary during the 1990s transition period: Crop Production Improvement Project; Integrated Livestock Industry Project; and the Integrated Agricultural Export Project. All these projects helped in strengthening the country’s institutions including the agricultural technology transfer aspects.
A large number of new land owners in Hungary had little idea of farm management, and as the extension workers also did not have necessary knowledge and skills to assist them, the owners ended up renting or selling their land in most cases to private agricultural corporations. According to 2001 data, 27.9 per cent of individual farmers had no agricultural qualification, and 64.3 per cent had just basic qualification. Vocational training also left much to be desired. Apart from this, farmers had little knowledge of the standards for agriculture set by the European Union. All this underlined the need for an extension service that could advise the farmers on comprehensive farm management as profitable enterprise. This led to the emergence of not only individual consultants, advisors, and some other non-public actors to assist large agricultural enterprises and cooperatives, but also necessitated an effective public extension service that could assist millions of small, family household farmers both in agricultural and rural development.
In 2000 (14 to 18 May), Hungary hosted the International Conference on the Central and Eastern European Agricultural Extension at Eger. The event was jointly organized by the Department of Education, Research and Development of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and the Center for Rural Development and Extension of the Szent Istvan University, Godollo.
The re-designing of the advisory system in Hungary has been going on since 2005. The country now has a viable public extension and advisory service, as well as funding for non-public actors who could provide extension services to farmers under contracts. The pluralistic extension and advisory system covers both agricultural and rural extension needs of the farming communities, but further reforms for fine-tuning the system will most probably continue. Hungary has been receiving necessary financial assistance and technical guidance from the European Union both before the accession and later after it became a member of the European Union in 2004.
The Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (MVH) is the sole paying agency of European Union subsidies in Hungary. The agency implements the aid instruments financed from European agricultural and rural development funds that include EAGF (European Agricultural Guarantee Fund) and EAFRD (European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development). In addition, the agency implements national schemes. Another relevant body is the National Development Agency, which performs several functions related to the European Union funding and development projects.
Hungary provides training, extension assistance and higher education to many specialists, researchers and farmers in developing countries. Hungarian experts and researchers carry out consulting activities in these countries to help in the development of the agricultural sector and affiliated institutions. Agro-tourism is a popular business in Hungary, which enables foreign visitors to spend a few days to visit Hungarian places and people of agricultural interests along with some entertainment.
Major institutions providing extension/advisory services
Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development
The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has overall responsibility for the “Farm Advisory System” that provides government-subsidized consultancy services, and is an obligation for all European Union member states under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that gives 80 per cent of the required financial support. The Ministry is also responsible for the supervision of the specialized advisory services usually provided by the non-public and civil society actors including private individual consultants and advisors. The Ministry performs this function through the following arrangements:
Institute of Training and Consulting: The Institute of Training and Consulting, which is one of the organizational arms of the Ministry, carries out national level tasks of organization, administration and coordination of the extension and advisory services’ delivery. The Institute works in collaboration with the Regional Advisory Centers.
Regional Advisory Centers (RACs): Hungary has seven (7) Regional Advisory Centers, mainly based in universities that are responsible for providing extension and advisory services to farmers in their respective regions. The RACs, accredited by the government, provide professional advisory services to the agricultural producers and forest farmers on the basis of their demand and agreements. They collaborate with the institutions of higher learning and research institutes to obtain scientific knowledge and services, and also participate in supervising and evaluating the advisory services. The services’ recipients are supposed to be eligible for the services as specified in the national and European Union regulations. The RACs provide the needed services through only those advisors who are registered in the Register of Professional Advisors.
Territorial Advisory Centers: According to a PowerPoint presentation made by SCAR (Standing Committee on Agricultural Research), there were 51 active Territorial Advisory Centers in Hungary in 2010 where contracted consultants provided direct advice to farmers.
County Agricultural Offices: Under the county agricultural offices, about 650 Village Agronomists provide general information to the farmers in addition to performing their routine office duties.
Rural Development Advisory Service: This service follows LEADER principles (LEADER is a French acronym for “Liaison Entre Actions de Developpement de l’Economie Rurale”, meaning links between the rural economy and development actions). LEADER groups are formed by the Local Development Communities in a bottom-up participatory method, which then establish local bureaus and give advice on rural development matters.
Professional Centers: Professional Centers, established within regional research institutes provide vocational support to client, farm and rural development advisory service organizations. The access to their professional database is free-of-charge.
National Rural Development Plan: Under the National Rural Development Plan 2004-2006, about 400 consultants performed a variety of tasks of public benefit at no cost to the farmers. Under the arrangement, Village Agronomists and the advisors under the Plan worked together.
Agricultural Research Institutes
Hungary has an enormous network of agricultural research institutions. Not all but some of the agricultural research institutes belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development undertake extension activities besides their routine research work. Three examples are:
- Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition (ATK): provides extension services.
- Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI): has an Extension and Innovation Center.
- Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing: organizes annual technical courses for commercial orchard owners; publishes technical handbooks, monographs, periodicals and information sheets.
Universities and higher education colleges
Universities and higher education colleges with relevant faculties offer degree programs in agricultural and rural sciences including extension. Universities support in the area of extension and advisory services in most cases is provided through collaboration with the Regional Advisory Centers. Four examples of relevant universities are:
- Kaposvar University has the Faculty of Animal Science.
- University of West Hungary has the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences.
- Szent Istvan University has Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Economics, Agriculture and Health Studies, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, and Faculty of Veterinary Science.
- University of Debrecen has a Center for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development, and Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management.
Examples of higher education colleges of agriculture and horticulture disciplines are:
- Gyongyos (Karoly Robert).
- Szarvas (Tessedik Samuel).
- Keeskemet, Nyfregyhaza and Mezotur (Szolnok).
Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture (being renamed in 2013 as Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development)
The Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture (HCA) is a national public body and the umbrella organization of the Budapest chamber and 19 regional chambers. These chambers represent more than 11,000 so far voluntary members in agricultural, forestry, fishery and hunting sectors, including related processing, trading and servicing enterprises. HCA duties relate to development, subsidies, and representation of general interest of the agricultural sector, European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and rural development. Its advisory system helps the producers to receive European Union subsidies. These services are available not only for the chamber members but for all producers. HCA operates the Farm Information Service www.agrarkamara.hu with the network of 202 advisors spread across Hungary.
The latest development: The Hungarian Parliament has adopted a new law in early 2013 according to which the HCA will not only bear a new title “Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development”, but also all farmers and businesses active in agricultural sector will be obliged to automatically become members. The law also applies to the food processing industry. The registration fee for this compulsory membership is capped at one million forints, and the subsequent yearly subscription will be determined by the company size.
In Hungary, the private, commercial consultancy and advisory sector comprises the following actors:
A description of the national level and 19 regional level chambers has been provided earlier. These chambers offer advisory services to clients.
There are a large number of producers’ associations, briefly described in the next section. Some of them offer advisory services.
Project and proposal writers
These technically specialized writers prepare proposals and projects, and fill out complex applications for investment in agriculture and rural development
Farm inputs, machinery and equipment manufacturers and distributors
Currently, Hungary has 174 companies of farm machinery and equipment, 85 per cent of which are small enterprises. Also, there is a National Association of Agricultural Machinery Manufacturers in Hungary, formed in 1991. Some of these businesses have as much as 45 per cent foreign investment. These manufacturers and distributors use various extension methods to promote their products with the motive of enhancing sales and profits. They organize exhibitions, method demonstrations and distribute printed information on the products and methods of using them, and at times, also provide free consulting, especially to big producers with the objective of expanding business.
Example of a multi-national agricultural company active in Hungary is Monsanto Hungarian Kft, which has branch offices in several cities of the country. Examples of Hungarian companies that manufacture farm machinery and equipment are: AJG Agrogep Kft (agricultural trailers); Farmgep Kft (fertilizer sprayers, etc.); Debreceni Mechanikai Muvek Kft (a variety of farm machinery); Forras Gepek Kft (sprinkler systems); and Kuhne Agricultural Machine Factory Zrt (cultivators, drills, etc.).
Hungarian agricultural consulting companies
The consulting companies offer a variety of fee-based services. For example, a Hungarian company EurAgro, has offices in Budapest, Rome (Italy) and Tbilisi (Georgia). The company’s primary contractors are Hungarian private and cooperative farms in the crop, livestock and horticulture sectors. It offers several services including consulting and advising, preparation of professional tenders, project formulation, studies, designing of agri-business programs and training.
Officially registered individual consultants
Consultancy services are provided in 24 specialized subject areas. The government has several legal requirements for consultants’ registration such as academic degree in a specialized technical field, at least five years’ experience, performance evaluations, compulsory annual continuing education and passed examinations, etc. In 2007, there were 560 registered consultants in Hungary who worked on self-employed basis but their services were paid with public funds.
There are roughly 100 Hungarian farms each of which operates on 10,000 plus hectares. Such large farms have highly specialized technical and marketing needs, which they meet by hiring commercial consultants, who are usually of high technical caliber with substantial experience. Commercial consulting involves foreign consultants as well as joint ventures between national and international consulting companies.
There are virtually thousands of NGOs in Hungary. Presumably they are involved at times in extension and advisory type activities under contracts with the government or donor-funded rural and agricultural development projects, but there is no information available to ascertain that any NGO’s main mission is to provide extension and advisory services to the farmers. Names of a few relevant NGOs are:
- Hungarian Association of NGOs for Development and Humanitarian Aid (HAND) its mission is to contribute to the formulation of effective, transparent, sustainable development cooperation policy based on member NGOs’ experiences.
- Non-profit Information and Training Center provides capacity building services to NGOs for sustainability.
- Hungarian Association for Environmentally Aware Management (KOVT) promotes environmentally aware business management towards enterprises.
- Eroforras Foundation – United Way Hungary operates as the central coordinator for the national United Way network, linking affiliates, managing a fund-raising strategy and providing training throughout the locally based network; has a grants program for quality projects in healthcare, education and social services.
- Open Garden Foundation (NyKA) seeks to address environmental, social and economic problems in an integrated way by establishing organic food systems.
- Gaia Foundation has been the incubator and sponsor of many cooperatives and ecological projects.
Farmers-based associations, cooperatives and societies
Hungary has a large number of farmers-based associations and agricultural cooperatives. The first farmers’ cooperatives were established in Hungary in 1948. In 1967, there were 3,187 farming cooperatives in the country. Some of the farmers’ associations have been formed on the lines of cooperatives, and many of them are involved in extension and advisory work. Examples of a few associations and cooperatives are:
- Grain Producers’ Association- Hungary.
- Agricultural and Rural Youth Association (AGRYA)- Hungary (Also known as Hungarian Young Farmers’ Association).
- Association of Hungarian Organic Farmers (MOSZ)www.hunorgfarm.hu.
- International Farm Management Association- Hungary.
- MOGERT Association for Hungarian Organic Farming.
- Hungarian Federation of Marketing Cooperatives.
- Association of Farming Cooperatives in Hungary.
List of Extension Providers
The following list shows an excerpt from the GFRAS Directory of Extension Providers for Hungary. Some of these entries may be specially marked for having more detailed information in the database of the Worldwide Extension Study WWES.
Training options for extension professionals
Pre-service training and education in agricultural extension may be pursued at any of the several Hungarian universities and higher education colleges with faculties of agricultural, livestock, forestry and environmental sciences, some of which have been mentioned in an earlier section. For in-service training, extension professionals may consider the following institutions. Some of these institutions offer courses on regular basis, but in other cases, special arrangements will have to be made with the institutions concerned to offer in-service training courses:
- National Rural Development Training and Advisory Institute (NAKVI – www.nakvi.hu).
- Agricultural Research Institutes, located in various parts of Hungary.
- Vocational Schools, 19 institutes operated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, covering agriculture, horticulture, food and related topics.
- EurAgro Consulting according to its website, organizes training, non-formal education, workshops, study tours, field days for Hungarians, or any other similar consulting company willing and competent to provide need-based in-service training.
- Universities and higher education colleges with relevant agricultural discipline programs.
- Under any training/capacity building project funded by the European Union.
Info-mediaries and information and communication technology (ict) for agriculture and extension
The demand for IT systems is quite high in Hungary due to its vast services sector. An Act on Communications was adopted in 2001, and the Ministry of Information Technology in Hungary was established in 2002. Although Hungary has factors like high labor costs, insufficient number of skilled technicians, and unsatisfactory level of English language, which slow down the pace of ICT sector development yet the country has emerged as one of the most developed outsourcing markets in the region, with its ICT sector fully privatized. According to the World Bank, in 2012, the number of mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) in Hungary was 116.38. During the same year, the number of Internet users (per 100 people) in the country was 72.
All universities and national ministries in Hungary now have their websites. ICT is also being used at hospitals, regional and local administration offices, schools, museums and libraries. So far, most visible ICT applications in agriculture are the website of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and the bi-lingual (English and Hungarian) Journal of Agricultural Informatics published by the Hungarian Association of Agricultural Informatics. As all Hungarian universities are using Internet applications, it may be assumed that agricultural education has also benefitted from it, but there is no evidence of ICT being used in support of extension and advisory services in any substantial manner. However, that might change in the near future.
In view of an international conference on Agricultural Informatics, going to be held from November 8 to 9, 2013 at Debrecen in Hungary, it is expected that some initiatives would emerge for significant incorporation of ICT in the agricultural sector. The event is being jointly organized by the Center for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the Debrecen University (UD), Hungarian Association of Agricultural Informatics (HAAI), and the European Federation for Information Technology in Agriculture, Food and the Environment (EFITA).
Resources and references
Adams, G. 2000. Extension advisory services in Central and Eastern Europe. In (M. Kalim Qamar (Ed.) Human Resources in Agricultural and Rural Development, Pp. 9-21. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Barczi, J., J. Kozari, and K. Toth (no date; probably 1993). Principles of Agricultural Extension Applicable in Hungary.
Burger, A. (no date; probably 2008). The Situation of Hungarian Agriculture. Budapest: Institute of Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Dajnoki, K., G. Szabados, and E.B. Baba (no date; probably 2008). Analysis of organizational and professional communication in the Hungarian agriculture. Paper presented at the 44th Croatian & 4th International Symposium on Agriculture; published in Agroekonomika i agrosociologija; Pp. 153-157.
Domolki, B. (no date; probably 2001). ICT in Hungary: Institutions, Regulations, Challenges and Applications in Academia, Industry and the Public Sector.
Elek, S. and J. Toth. 2007. Rural Technology Transfer in Transition Economies in Hungary. D12-3 Fourth 6-Monthly Report, prepared under the project, “Agro-economic Policy Analysis of the New Member States, the Candidate States and the Countries of the Western Balkan”.
Hermans, F., L. Klerkx, and D. Roep (no date; probably 2012). Structural Conditions for Dynamic Innovation Networks: A Review of Eight European Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems. Hollandseweg: Wageningen University and Research Center.
International Co-operative Information Center (1992). Hungary: Farming Cooperatives (1992)
ITD (Investment and Trade Development Agency) Hungary (no date). ICT in Hungary – Mission Possible.
Jozsef, K. (February 2005). Developing the Hungarian Agricultural Extension System within the Range of Project LEARNing
Milankovics, K., J. Seres, and L. Podmaniczky. 1997. Network and Information Technology Related Development at Godollo University of Agricultural Sciences, Hungary. Paper presented at the First European Conference for Information Technology, held at Copenhagen, 15-18 June, 1997.
Ministry of Rural Development, Hungary. 2011. Hungarian Agricultural Research: Introduction to the System of Agricultural Research Institutions.
Nagi, G. (no date; probably 2006). Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles: Hungary. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
National Association of Agricultural Machinery Manufacturers in Hungary (no date). Farm Machinery and Equipment from Hungary.
Nemes, G. and C. High. 2013. Old institutions, new challenges: the agricultural knowledge system in Hungary. Studies in Agricultural Economics, 115 (2013) 76-84.
Nemes, G. and C. High. 2011. Implementation of Agri-Environmental Program in Hungary. Paper presented at the RSA Annual International Conference, held at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK from 17 to 20 April 2011.
Popp, J. 2003. The preparation of Hungarian agricultural policy for the EU accession. AGRI.ECON. – CZECH, 49, 2003 (2): 87-93.
Ritter, K. (no date). The Role of Agriculture in Rural Development in Hungary; in Eastern European Countryside; Pp. 137-153.
Rivkin, A. (no date; probably 2005). Hungary’s ICT Sector.
SCAR (Standing Committee on Agricultural Research). 2012. Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems: Experiences in the Member States. PowerPoint presentation made at a technical meeting/seminar, “The Future of Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems”, held at Brussels on March 5, 2012.
Stedman, J.M. 1930. Foreign Agricultural Extension Activities: England and Wales, Germany, Norway, Italy, and Hungary. Extension Service Circular 119. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture; Extension Service; Office of Cooperative Extension Work.
- Authored by M. Kalim Qamar (October 2013)
- Edited by Burton E. Swanson